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Grist Ground malt and grains ready for mashing. Growler A jug- or pail-like container once used to carry draught beer bought by the measure at the local tavern. Brewpubs often serve growlers to sell beer to-go. Often a customer will pay a deposit on the growler but can bring it back again and again for a re-fill. Growlers to-go are not legal in all U. Gruit An old-fashioned herb mixture used for bittering and flavoring beer, popular before the extensive use of hops. Gruit or grut ale may also refer to the beverage produced using gruit.

Hand Pump A device for dispensing cask conditioned draught beer using a pump operated by hand. The use of a hand pump allows the draught beer to be served without the use of pressurized carbon dioxide. Head Retention The foam stability of a beer as measured, in seconds, by time required for a 1-inch foam collar to collapse. Homebrewing The art of making beer at home. In the U.

The Cranston Bill allows a single person to brew up to gallons of beer annually for personal enjoyment and up to gallons in a household of two persons or more of legal drinking age.

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Learn more from the American Homebrewers Association. Hops A perennial climbing vine, also known by the Latin botanical name Humulus lupulus. The female plant yields flowers of soft-leaved pine-like cones strobile measuring about an inch in length. Only the female ripened flower is used for flavoring beer. Because hops reproduce through cuttings, the male plants are not cultivated and are even rooted out to prevent them from fertilizing the female plants, as the cones would become weighed-down with seeds.

Seedless hops have a much higher bittering power than seeded. There are presently over one hundred varieties of hops cultivated around the world. Apart from contributing bitterness, hops impart aroma and flavor, and inhibit the growth of bacteria in wort and beer. Hops are added at the beginning bittering hops , middle flavoring hops , and end aroma hops of the boiling stage, or even later in the brewing process dry hops. The addition of hops to beer dates from BC; however, hops were used to flavor beer in Pharaonic Egypt around BC. They were cultivated in Germany as early as AD and were used extensively in French and German monasteries in medieval times and gradually superseded other herbs and spices around the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Prior to the use of hops, beer was flavored with herbs and spices such as juniper, coriander, cumin, nutmeg, oak leaves, lime blossoms, cloves, rosemary, gentian, gaussia, chamomile, and other herbs or spices. Hopping The addition of hops to un-fermented wort or fermented beer. Hot Break The flocculation of proteins and tannins during wort boiling. Humulene One of the essential oils made in the flowering cone of the hops plant Humulus lupulus. Hydrometer A glass instrument used to measure the specific gravity of liquids as compared to water, consisting of a graduated stem resting on a weighted float.

Immersion Chiller A wort chiller most commonly made of copper that is used by submerging into hot wort before fermentation as a method of cooling.


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Infusion Mash A method of mashing which achieves target mashing temperatures by the addition of heated water at specific temperatures. Inoculate The introduction of a microbe such as yeast or microorganisms such as lactobacillus into surroundings capable of supporting its growth. International Bitterness Units IBU The measure of the bittering substances in beer analytically assessed as milligrams of isomerized alpha acid per liter of beer, in ppm. This measurement depends on the style of beer. Irish Moss Used as a clairifier in beer.

Modified particles or powder of the seaweed Chondrus crispus that help to precipitate proteins in the kettle by facilitating the hot break. Isinglass A gelatinous substance made from the swim bladder of certain fish that is sometimes added to beer to help clarify and stabilize the finished product. Keg A cylindrical container, usually constructed of steel or sometimes aluminum, commonly used to store, transport and serve beer under pressure.

Other standard keg sizes will be found in other countries. Kilning The process of heat-drying malted barley in a kiln to stop germination and to produce a dry, easily milled malt from which the brittle rootlets are easily removed. Kilning also removes the raw flavor or green-malt flavor associated with germinating barley, and new aromas, flavors, and colors develop according to the intensity and duration of the kilning process. Kraeusen n — The rocky head of foam which appears on the surface of the wort during fermentation. Lace The lacelike pattern of foam sticking to the sides of a glass of beer once it has been partly or totally emptied.

Synonym: Belgian lace. Lactobacillus is most often considered to be a beer spoiler, in that it can convert unfermented sugars found in beer into lactic acid. Some brewers introduce Lactobacillus intentionally into finished beer in order to add desirable acidic sourness to the flavor profile of certain brands. Lager Lagers are any beer that is fermented with bottom-fermenting yeast at colder temperatures.

Lagers are most often associated with crisp, clean flavors and are traditionally fermented and served at colder temperatures than ales. Lager Yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is a bottom fermenting yeast that ferments in cooler temperatures F and often lends sulfuric compounds. Lagering Storing bottom-fermented beer in cold cellars at near-freezing temperatures for periods of time ranging from a few weeks to years, during which time the yeast cells and proteins settle out and the beer improves in taste.

Large Brewery As defined by the Brewers Association : A brewery with an annual beer production of over 6,, barrels. Lauter Tun A large vessel fitted with a false slotted bottom like a colander and a drain spigot in which the mash is allowed to settle and sweet wort is removed from the grains through a straining process. In some smaller breweries, the mash tun can be used for both mashing and lautering. Lautering The process of separating the sweet wort pre-boil from the spent grains in a lauter tun or with other straining apparatus.

Lightstruck Skunked Appears in both the aroma and flavor in beer and is caused by exposure of beer in light colored bottles or beer in a glass to ultra-violet or fluorescent light. Liquor The name given, in the brewing industry, to water used for mashing and brewing, especially natural or treated water containing high amounts of calcium and magnesium salts. Lovibond A scale used to measure color in grains and sometimes in beer. See also Standard Reference Method. Malt Processed barley that has been steeped in water, germinated on malting floors or in germination boxes or drums, and later dried in kilns for the purpose of stopping the germination and converting the insoluble starch in barley to the soluble substances and sugars in malt.

Malt Extract A thick syrup or dry powder prepared from malt and sometimes used in brewing often used by new homebrewers. Mash A mixture of ground malt and possibly other grains or adjuncts and hot water that forms the sweet wort after straining. Mash Tun The vessel in which grist is soaked in water and heated in order to convert the starch to sugar and to extract the sugars, colors, flavors and other solubles from the grist. Mashing The process of mixing crushed malt and possibly other grains or adjuncts with hot water to convert grain starches to fermentable sugars and non-fermentable carbohydrates that will add body , head retention and other characteristics to the beer.

Mashing also extracts colors and flavors that will carry through to the finished beer, and also provides for the degradation of haze-forming proteins. Mashing requires several hours and produces a sugar-rich liquid called wort. Mashing Out The process of raising the mash temperature to F.

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The goal is to halt any enzymatic activity and prevent further conversion of starches to sugars. MBAA Master Brewers Association of the Americas MBAA was formed in with the purpose of promoting, advancing, and improving the professional interest of brew and malt house production and technical personnel.

Microbrewery As defined by the Brewers Association : A brewery that produces less than 15, barrels of beer per year with 75 percent or more of its beer sold off-site. Milling The grinding of malt into grist or meal to facilitate the extraction of sugars and other soluble substances during the mash process. The endosperm must be crushed to medium-sized grits rather than to flour consistency. It is important that the husks remain intact when the grain is milled or cracked because they will later act as a filter aid during lautering.

Modified Malts Modified Malts refers to the length of the germination process and how many of the internal malt structures and compounds have already been broken down. Mouthfeel The textures one perceives in a beer. Includes carbonation , fullness and aftertaste.

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Musty Moldy, mildewy character that can be the result of cork or bacterial infection in a beer. It can be perceived in both taste and aroma. Myrcene One of the essential oils made in the flowering cone of the hops plant Humulus lupulus. Natural Carbonation Sugar is added to beer in its container and then sealed. Fermentation kicks off again as the yeast eats the new sugar addition. When yeast ferments, it releases CO2 which is then absorbed into the liquid.

Nitrogen When used for the carbonation of beer, Nitrogen contributes a thick creamy mouthfeel, different from the mouthfeel you get from CO2. Noble Hops Traditional European hop varieties prized for their characteristic flavor and aroma.

Dictionary of Beer & Brewing Book (Book)

Traditionally these are grown only in four small areas in Europe:. Oasthouse A farm-based facility where hops are dried and baled after picking. Original Gravity OG The specific gravity of wort before fermentation. A measure of the total amount of solids that are dissolved in the wort as compared to the density of water, which is conventionally given as 1. Synonym: Starting gravity; starting specific gravity; original wort gravity. Oxidation A chemical reaction in which one of the reactants beer, food undergoes the addition of or reaction with oxygen or an oxidizing agent.

Oxidized Stale, winy flavor or aroma of wet cardboard, paper, rotten pineapple sherry and many other variations. Package A general term for the containers used to market beverages. Packaged beer is generally sold in bottles and cans. Beer sold in kegs is usually called draught beer. Palate The top part of the inside of your mouth and is generally associated with how humans taste. Pediococcus A microorganism orbacteria usually considered contaminants of beer and wine although their presence is sometimes desired in beer styles such as Lambic.

Certain Pediococcus strains can produce diacetyl , which renders a buttery or butterscotch aroma and flavor to beer, sometimes desired in small doses, but usually considered to be a flavor defect. Phenols A class of chemical compounds perceptible in both aroma and taste. Some phenolic flavors and aromas are desirable in certain beer styles, for example German-style wheat beers in which the phenolic components derived from the yeast used, or Smoke beers in which the phenolic components derived from smoked malt.

Higher concentrations in beer are often due to the brewing water, infection of the wort by bacteria or wild yeasts, cleaning agents, or crown and can linings. Phenolic sensory attributes include clovey, herbal, medicinal or pharmaceutical band-aid. Pitching The addition of yeast to the wort once it has cooled down to desirable temperatures.

Primary Fermentation The first stage of fermentation carried out in open or closed containers and lasting from two to twenty days during which time the bulk of the fermentable sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. Synonym: Principal fermentation; initial fermentation. Priming The addition of small amounts of fermentable sugars to fermented beer before racking or bottling to induce a renewed fermentation in the bottle or keg and thus carbonate the beer. Prohibition A law instituted by the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.

Constitution stemming from the Volstead Act on January 18, , forbidding the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the U. It was repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment to the U. Constitution on December 5, Racking The process of transferring beer from one vessel to another, especially into the final package or keg. Generally defined as beers that have undergone a secondary fermentation in the container from which they are served and that are served without the application of carbon dioxide.

Regional Craft Brewery As defined by the Brewers Association : An independent regional brewery having either an all malt flagship or has at least 50 percent of its volume in either all malt beers or in beers which use adjuncts to enhance rather than lighten flavor. Reinheitsgebot The German beer purity law passed in , stating that beer may only contain water, barley and hops. Yeast was later added after its role in fermentation was discovered by Louis Pasteur. Residual Sugar Any leftover sugar that the yeast did not consume during fermentation.

Resin The gummy organic substance produced by certain plants and trees. Humulone and lupulone, for example, are bitter resins that occur naturally in the hop flower. Saccharification The conversion of malt starch into fermentable sugars, primarily maltose. Saccharomyces The genus of single-celled yeasts that ferment sugar and are used in the making of alcoholic beverages and bread. Yeasts of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are commonly used in brewing. Sediment The refuse of solid matter that settles and accumulates at the bottom of fermenters, conditioning vessels and bottles of bottle-conditioned beer.

Session Beer A beer of lighter body and alcohol of which one might expect to drink more than one serving in a sitting. Solvent-like Flavor and aromatic character similar to acetone or lacquer thinner, often due to high fermentation temperatures. Sorghum A cereal grain from various grasses Sorghum vulgare. Also a grain sought out by those who are gluten intolerant. Sour A taste perceived to be acidic and tart. Sometimes the result of a bacterial influence intended by the brewer, from either wild or inoculated bacteria such as lactobacillus and pediococcus. Sparging In lautering , an operation consisting of spraying the spent mash grains with hot water to retrieve the liquid malt sugar and extract remaining in the grain husks.

Specific Gravity The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water. This method is used to determine how much dissolved sugars are present in the wort or beer. Specific gravity has no units because it is expressed as a ratio. See also Original Gravity and Final Gravity. Standard Reference Method SRM An analytical method and scale that brewers use to measure and quantify the color of a beer.

The higher the SRM is, the darker the beer. In beer, SRM ranges from as low as 2 light lager to as high as 45 stout and beyond. Step Infusion A mashing method wherein the temperature of the mash is raised by adding very hot water, and then stirring and stabilizing the mash at the target step temperature. Sulfur Aroma reminiscent of rotten eggs or burnt matches; a by-product of some yeasts or a beer becoming light struck.

Tannins A group of organic compounds contained in certain cereal grains and other plants.

Dictionary of Beer and Brewing: 2,500 Words with More Than 400 New Terms

Tannins are present in the hop cone. The greater part of malt tannin content is derived from malt husks , but malt tannins differ chemically from hop tannins. In extreme examples, tannins from both can be perceived as a taste or sensation similar to sampling black tea that has steeped for a very long time. Temperature Rests Temperature Rests during the beer making process allows the brewer to adjust fermentable sugar profiles so as to influence characteristics of the resulting beer.

Top Fermentation One of the two basic fermentation methods characterized by the tendency of yeast cells to rise to the surface of the fermentation vessel. Ale yeast is top fermenting compared to lager yeast, which is bottom fermenting. Beers brewed in this fashion are commonly called ale or top-fermented beers. These nerves of the human face sense temperature and texture. Trub Wort particles resulting from the precipitation of proteins, hop oils and tannins during the boiling and cooling stages of brewing. Volatile Compounds Chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate and enter the surrounding air.

Volstead Act or the national prohibition act, was enacted to carry out the intent of the Eighteenth Amendment, which established prohibition in the United States. Volumes of C02 The measurement of c02 dissolved in a beer and is an indication of the carbonation level. Vorlauf At the outset of lautering and immediately prior to collecting wort in the brew kettle, the recirculation of wort from the lauter tun outlet back onto the top of the grain bed in order to clarify the wort.

Water One of the four ingredients in beer. Burton is renowned for its bitter beers because the water is hard higher PH , Edinburgh for its pale ales, Dortmund for its pale lager, and Plzen for its Pilsner Urquell soft water lower PH. Wet Hopping The addition of freshly harvested hops that have not yet been dried to different stages of the brewing process. Wet hopping adds unique flavors and aromas to beer that are not normally found when using hops that have been dried and processed per usual.

Wort The bittersweet sugar solution obtained by mashing the malt and boiling in the hops , which becomes beer through fermentation. Yeast During the fermentation process, yeast converts the natural malt sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. Yeast was first viewed under a microscope in by the Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek; in , Louis Pasteur discovered that yeast cells lack chlorophyll and that they could develop only in an environment containing both nitrogen and carbon.

Yeast Cake Living yeast cells compressed with starch into a cake, for use in brewing. Yeast Pitching The point in the brewing process in which yeast is added to cool wort prior to fermentation. Zymurgy The branch of chemistry that deals with fermentation processes, as in brewing. Also the name of the American Homebrewers Association bi-monthly magazine. Reproduction of this content requires credit to CraftBeer. Any updates or suggestions please email jess craftbeer. Just log in using your Google, Facebook or Twitter account and fill out a quick form to share your latest and greatest with craft beer fans across the country.

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Your information will be erased and your published posts will be reassigned to the site's admin account. This action cannot be undone. Alcoholic Warming taste of ethanol and higher alcohols. Can be described as spicy and vinous in character. The higher the ABV of a beer, often the larger the mouthfeel it has. Alcohol can be perceived in aroma, flavor and as a sensation. A person with a disabling disorder characterized by compulsive uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages. B Barley A cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare.

Barrel A standard measure in the U. Bomber A ounce bottle of beer.

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Burton Snatch The aroma of Sulphur indicating the presence of sulphate ions. Cellaring Storing or aging beer at a controlled temperature to allow maturing. Kit Of The Week. Kegerator Conversion Kits Homebrew Commercial. Kegerators Standard Commercial. Cold Brew Coffee.

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